How to Head a College Paper
May 29, · Beginning a research paper is no exception. Many students—and pros—struggle with how to write an introduction for a research paper. This short guide will describe the purpose of a research paper introduction and how to create a good one. What is an introduction for a research paper? Introductions to research papers do a lot of work. Title should be between words and should reflect content of paper (e.g., IV and DV). Title, your name, and Hamilton College are all double-spaced (no extra spaces) Create a page header using the “View header” function in MS Word. On the title page, the header should include the following.
The following guidelines have been widely adopted by instructors and educational institutions to standardize manuscript formatting, making it easier for instructors to evaluate papers and theses and for writers to focus on making decisions about their research, ideas, and prose. Although these guidelines follow common conventions, acceptable variations exist. Follow the directions of your instructor, school, or publisher if you are asked to use different formatting guidelines.
You should also be responsive to the specific demands of your project, which may have unique needs that require you to use a formatting style not described below. Leave margins of one inch at the top and bottom and on both sides of the text. See fig. Always choose an easily readable typeface Times New Roman is just one example in which the regular type style contrasts clearly with the italic, and set it to anywhere between 11 and 13 points, unless your instructor specifies a different font size.
Generally use the same typeface and type size throughout the paper however, see section 7. Do not justify the lines of text at the right margin, and turn off the automatic hyphenation feature in your word processing program. It is unnecessary to divide words at the ends of lines in a manuscript.
When checking word breaks in a professionally typeset text, consult your dictionary about where words should break. Double-space the entire research paper, including quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Indent the first line of a paragraph half an inch from the left margin. Indent block quotations half an inch as well. Leave one space after a period or other concluding punctuation mark, unless your instructor prefers two spaces.
On a new double-spaced line, center the title fig. Do not italicize or underline your title, put it in quotation marks or boldface, or type it in all capital letters. Follow the rules for capitalization set forth in 2. Do not use a period after your title or after any heading in the paper Works Cited.
Begin your text on a new double-spaced line after the title, indenting the first line of the paragraph half an inch from the left margin. A research paper does not normally need a title page, but if the paper is a group project, create a title page and list all the authors on it instead of in the header on page 1 of your essay fig.
If your teacher requires a title page in lieu of or in addition to the header, format the title page according to the instructions you are given. Number all pages consecutively throughout the research paper in the upper right-hand corner, half an inch from the top and flush with the right margin. Type your surname, followed by a space, before the page number fig.
Your word processing program will probably allow you to create a running head of this kind that appears automatically on every page. Headings and subheadings in the body of your research project can help how to head a research paper and structure your writing, but you should avoid overusing them. Headings should never be used to compensate for poor structure or to explain an underdeveloped idea, and they are generally not needed in short, essay-length works.
When headings are called for in your writing project, keep them short and observe the basic guidelines below. Consistency in the styling of headings and subheadings is key to signaling to readers the structure of a research project. Word processing software often has built-in heading styles.
Headings in the body of your research. After the first level, the other headings are subheadings—that is, they are subordinate. Font styling and size are used to signal prominence. Each level 1 heading should appear in the same style and size, as should each level 2 heading, and so on. In general, a boldface, larger font indicates prominence; a smaller font, italics, or lack of bold can be used to signal subordination. For readability, avoid using all capital letters for headings in some cases, small capitals may be acceptable.
No internal heading level should have only one instance. For example, if you use a level 1 heading, you should have at least one other level 1 heading. The exceptions are the paper or chapter title and the headings for notes and the list of works cited. In the body of the paper, headings should be flush with the left margin, not indented or centered.
For readability, include a line space above and below a heading. Generally avoid using numbers and letters to designate headings unless you are working in a discipline where using them is conventional. Capitalize and punctuate headings like the titles of works as explained in 2.
The list of works cited appears at the end of the paper, after any endnotes. Center the heading, Works Cited, an inch from the top of the page fig. If the list contains only one entry, make the heading How to setup an internet radio station free Cited. Doublespace between the heading and the first entry. Begin each entry flush with the left margin; if an entry runs more than one line, indent the subsequent line or lines half an inch from the left margin.
This format is sometimes called hanging indentand you can set your word processing program to create it automatically for a group of paragraphs. Hanging indent makes alphabet lists easier to use. Double-space the entire list. Place tables and illustrations as close as possible to the parts of the text to which they relate.
A table is usually labeled Table, given an arabic numeral, and titled. Type both the label and title flush left on separate lines above the table, and capitalize them as titles do not use all capital letters. Place the source of the table and any notes in a caption immediately below the table. To avoid confusion between notes to the text and notes to the table, designate notes to the table with lowercase letters rather than with numerals.
Double-space throughout; use dividing lines as needed fig. Any other type of illustrative visual material—for example, a photograph, map, line drawing, graph, or chart—should be labeled Figure usually abbreviated Fig. A label and caption ordinarily appear directly below the illustration and have the same one-inch margins as the text of the paper.
If the caption of a table or illustration provides complete information about the source and the source is not cited in the text, no entry is needed for the source in the works-cited list. If you provide full bibliographic details in a caption, punctuate the caption like a works-cited-list entry but do not invert the name of the author or artist that appears at the beginning of the caption fig.
Otherwise, use commas to separate elements in a caption and provide full publication details in the works-cited list fig. Musical illustrations are labeled Example usually abbreviated Ex.
A label and caption ordinarily appear directly below the example and have the same one-inch margins as the text of the paper fig. Lists can help you organize information and present it economically.
The goal of any list is to help readers easily understand information. Overusing lists, however, can have the opposite effect, making prose difficult to follow.
Lists can how to debone a catfish how to head a research paper into your prose or set vertically. They can be numbered when enumeration is essential to your point. It is preferable to integrate lists into your prose, rather than to set them vertically ,whenever the information can be readily understood in this format. A colon is often used to introduce an integrated list unless the list is grammatically essential to the introductory wording—for example, when the list is the how to get rid of yeast on the tongue of the verb that introduces it, as in the second example below where the list is the object of the verb include.
Punctuate items in an unnumbered, integrated list just as you would words in a sentence. The workshop will walk students through five key stages in the research process: 1 selecting a topic, 2 searching for sources, 3 evaluating sources, 4 reading and taking notes from relevant sources, and 5 refining the how do i resize a jpeg photo. Vertical lists are best what are the different types of bras when the information presented is lengthy, has many component parts, or benefits from being set apart from the main prose.
Below are examples of vertical lists—which may be unnumbered, numbered, or bulleted—and how to introduce, punctuate, and capitalize them. Word processing programs automatically define styles for lists so that they are indented and thus clearly distinguished from the text and so that each item in the list forms a unit.
A list may be introduced with a complete sentence followed by a colon, as in the examples below. The items in the list can be composed of complete sentences or fragments but should be consistent in using one or the other. If the list items are complete sentences, the first letter of the first word of each item should be capitalized, and the item should be followed by closing punctuation, such as a period or how to fix skin discoloration naturally mark.
How is realism evinced in the novel, and when does the novel retreat from realism? In bulleted lists, elements begin with a lowercase letter unless the first word is normally capitalized, such as proper nounsand no punctuation follows list elements unless they are composed of a full sentence.
If the list items are not complete sentences and the list is not bulleted, then, whether the list is how to root samsung gt or not, begin each item with a lowercase letter and punctuate the fragments like parts of a sentence. Use semicolons between the list items and write and or or before the final item.
A period should conclude the list. A list may also start with a sentence continued in the list, as shown in the examples below. No colon should appear before how to set up a 2.1 speaker system lists. In most cases, list what passport information is needed to book a flight continuing the sentence introducing them will not be complete sentences, and each item can therefore begin with a lowercase letter.
In formal contexts, you may punctuate the fragments in numbered and unnumbered lists like parts of a sentence. In bulleted lists, elements begin with a lowercase letter unless the first word is normally capitalized, such as a proper nounand no punctuation follows list elements unless they are composed of a full sentence.
The only official website devoted to MLA style, it provides. Use a high-quality printer. Some instructors prefer papers printed on a single side because such papers are easier to read, but others allow printing on both sides to conserve how to solve unidentified network problem in windows 8. Proofread and correct your research paper carefully before submitting it.
Spellcheckers and usage checkers can be helpful but should be used with caution. They do not find all errors, such as words spelled correctly but misused, and they sometimes label correct material as erroneous, such as many proper nouns as well as terms from languages other than English. Pages of a printed research paper may get misplaced or lost if they are left unattached or merely folded down at a corner, so be sure to use a staple or paper clip. Margins Leave margins of one inch at the top and bottom and on both sides of the text.
Text Formatting Always choose an easily readable typeface Times New Roman is just one example in which the regular type style contrasts clearly with the italic, and set it to anywhere between 11 and 13 points, unless your instructor specifies a different font size. Running Head and Page Number Number all pages consecutively throughout the research paper in the upper right-hand corner, half an inch from the top and flush with the right margin.
Major Paper Sections
Nov 06, · Select the top-right position. Check the “Show on first page” box if possible. These steps may differ slightly depending on your version of Microsoft Word. To set up an APA running head in Google Docs: Click on “Insert” > “Headers and footers” > “Header”. Insert your (abbreviated) paper title in capital letters.
When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here. Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper 8. For a professional paper, this includes your paper title and the page number.
For a student paper, this only includes the page number. The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation. It acknowledges that many font choices are legitimate, and it advises writers to check with their publishers, instructors, or institutions for guidance in cases of uncertainty.
While the APA Manual does not specify a single font or set of fonts for professional writing, it does recommend a few fonts that are widely available. These include sans serif fonts such as point Calibri, point Arial, and point Lucida Sans Unicode as well as serif fonts such as point Times New Roman, point Georgia, point Computer Modern. Note: APA 7 provides slightly different directions for formatting the title pages of professional papers e. The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name , and the institutional affiliation.
A professional paper should also include the author note. A student paper should also include the course number and name , instructor name , and assignment due date.
Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. The title should be centered and written in boldface.
APA recommends that your title be focused and succinct and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced. Beneath the title, type the author's name : first name, middle initial s , and last name.
Do not use titles Dr. Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation , which should indicate the location where the author s conducted the research. A professional paper should include the author note beneath the institutional affiliation, in the bottom half of the title page.
This should be divided up into several paragraphs, with any paragraphs that are not relevant omitted. The second paragraph should show any change in affiliation or any deaths of the authors. The third paragraph should include any disclosures or acknowledgements, such as study registration, open practices and data sharing, disclosure of related reports and conflicts of interest, and acknowledgement of financial support and other assistance.
The fourth paragraph should include contact information for the corresponding author. In other words, a professional paper's title page will include the title of the paper flush left in all capitals and the page number flush right, while a student paper will only contain the page number flush right.
Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header described above. Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. Do not indent. Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions.
You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph, double-spaced. Your abstract should typically be no more than words. You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: italicized , and then list your keywords.
Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases. The page template for the new OWL site does not include contributors' names or the page's last edited date. However, select pages still include this information. Purdue Online Writing Lab. Title of resource. General Writing FAQs. Contributors' names. Last edited date. Site Name. Title Page Note: APA 7 provides slightly different directions for formatting the title pages of professional papers e.
A student paper should not include an author note. Title page for a professional paper paper in APA 7 style. Abstract page for a student paper in APA 7 style.