Causes of Diarrhea in Four-Month-Old Babies
Jul 03, · Recognizing Acid Reflux/GERD in Infants 1. Spitting up and vomiting. Spitting up is normal for infants. However, forceful spit-up may be a symptom of GERD. This 2. Refusal to eat and difficulty eating or swallowing. Your infant may refuse to eat Author: Tayla Holman. May 18, · Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), on the other hand, is spitting up that’s painful because stomach acid comes up with the milk. This acidity hitting the esophagus causes pain or heartburn. Your baby might be in pain if he is crying or arching his back—especially after a feed—or is refusing to feed. If you notice these signs, or if your baby is not gaining enough weight or is spitting .
Infant bowel habits and characteristics change quite abruptly during the first few months of life. By about four-months of age a baby may have diapers frequently consisting of soft, liquid or solid stools. A breastfed baby will pass watery or seedy stools that have minimal shape.
These are not signs of diarrhea. Infant diarrhea is described as bowel movements that are more frequent, greater in volume, watery and foul-smelling. Baby diarrhea can be due to illness or diet. A bottle-fed infant isn't likely to develop a sudden bout of diarrhea as a result of the formula, but if she has suffered from diarrhea, bloating, constipation and other digestive discomforts since beginning the formula, a doctor may recommend a different brand or type.
A breast-fed baby can have diarrhea in response to the mother's diet. Her intake of dairy, spicy foods and even caffeine can upset a baby's sensitive tummy and cause diarrhea. Mothers can keep a food log to help identify what foods trigger diarrhea, fussiness, gassiness and other discomforts in a breastfed baby.
An infant can have a sensitivity or intolerance to milk proteins, known as dairy allergy or lactose intolerance. What age is considered elderly abuse issues can develop around 4 months but they will likely be present soon after birth.
Diarrhea is a common side effects of many antibiotics. This is true not just for babies but also for adults and children.
A mother on antibiotics can pass the medicine to her baby during breastfeeding, which may result in infant diarrhea. The diarrhea should resolve within a day or two of finishing the prescription. Various bacteria, viruses and parasites can cause diarrhea in an infant. This can be contracted by touching an item contaminated with the organism and putting the hands or the object into the mouth. Such infections are often passed from caregivers and others who handle the baby. These include rotavirus, E.
This organisms are often found in foods, like raw meats and poorly washed produce. In addition to diarrhea, the infant may develop a fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting, lethargy and a poor appetite from an intestinal infection. Sometimes the diarrhea contains blood, especially with a bacterial infection. Treatment is not usually offered but the infant is monitored for persistent illness and dehydration.
Sarah How to organize your room for teenage girls has written stacks of research articles dating back to How to tell if my baby has reflux has consulted in various settings and taught courses focused on psychology.
Her work has been published by ParentDish, Atkins and other clients. Harding holds a Master of Science in psychology from Capella University and is completing several certificates through the Childbirth and Postpartum Professional Association. More Articles.
Written by Sarah Harding. References DrGreene. Acute diarrhea. Am Fam Physician. Chronic Diarrhea: Diagnosis and Management. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. Eating, diet, and nutrition for diarrhea. Updated November, Diarrheal Diseases — Acute and Chronic. American College of Gastroenterology. Minocha A, Adamec C. New York:Facts on File. About the Author. Photo Credits Newborn image by jhogan from Fotolia.
Your doctor will start with a physical exam and questions about your baby's symptoms. If your baby is healthy, growing as expected and seems content, then testing usually isn't needed. In some cases, however, your doctor might recommend:. For most babies, making some adjustments to feeding will ease infant reflux until it resolves on its own. Reflux medications aren't recommended for children with uncomplicated reflux.
However, a short-term trial of an acid-blocking medication — such as cimetidine Tagamet HB or famotidine Pepcid AC for infants ages 1 month to 1 year or omeprazole magnesium Prilosec for children age 1 year or older — might be recommended if your baby:. Rarely, the lower esophageal sphincter is surgically tightened to prevent acid from flowing back into the esophagus. This procedure is usually done only when reflux is severe enough to prevent growth or to interfere with your baby's breathing.
Remember, infant reflux is usually little cause for concern. Just keep plenty of burp cloths handy as you ride it out. If reflux continues after your child's first birthday, or if your child is having symptoms such as lack of weight gain and breathing problems, you might be referred to a doctor who specializes in children's digestive diseases pediatric gastroenterologist.
Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Don't delay your care at Mayo Clinic Schedule your appointment now for safe in-person care. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Diagnosis Your doctor will start with a physical exam and questions about your baby's symptoms. In some cases, however, your doctor might recommend: Ultrasound.
This imaging test can detect pyloric stenosis. Lab tests. Blood and urine tests can help identify or rule out possible causes of recurring vomiting and poor weight gain. Esophageal pH monitoring. To measure the acidity in your baby's esophagus, the doctor will insert a thin tube through the baby's nose or mouth and into the esophagus.
The tube is attached to a device that monitors acidity. Your baby might need to stay in the hospital while being monitored. These images can detect abnormalities in the digestive tract, such as an obstruction. Your baby may be given a contrast liquid barium from a bottle before the test.
Upper endoscopy. A special tube equipped with a camera lens and light endoscope is passed through your baby's mouth and into the esophagus, stomach and first part of the small intestine. Tissue samples may be taken for analysis. For infants and children, endoscopy is usually done under general anesthesia. More Information Ultrasound Urinalysis X-ray. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. Share on: Facebook Twitter. Show references Winter HS. Gastroesophageal reflux in infants. Accessed Nov.
Martin RJ, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux and motility in the neonate. Elsevier; Rosen R, et al. Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines: Joint recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Mayo Clinic; Papachrisanthou MM. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. Ferguson TD. Gastroesophageal reflux: Regurgitation in the infant population. Ayerbe JIG, et al. Diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants and children: From guidelines to clinical practice. Mindlina I. Diagnosis and management of Sandifer syndrome in children with intractable neurological symptoms.
European Journal of Pediatrics. Baird DC, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants and children. American Family Physician. Accessed Dec. Related How infant reflux occurs. Associated Procedures Ultrasound Urinalysis X-ray. Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic.