what are characteristics of bacteria

Pathogenic bacteria

Discusses characteristics of bacteria. We have moved all content for this concept to for better organization. Please update your bookmarks accordingly. Oct 22,  · Bacteria are the earliest microorganisms on the earth. The external and internal characteristics of bacteria are a bit different from the rest of the organisms on the earth.. They are prokaryotic in nature meaning they are the earliest forms of the cell without a nucleus.. These characters make them immortal, omnipresent and also very versatile.

Archaea ae unicellular organisms that make up the third domain of organisms on earth. As such, they are different from the other two domains that include Bacteria and Eukaryota.

Like bacteria, however, archaea are what does lease to own mean on a house that share what files can you airdrop characteristics with bacteria this is one of the reasons archaea were previously thought to be a type of bacteria. Due to their ability to survive extreme conditions, they can be found in a variety of environments ranging from lakes and soil to the Dead Sea and the deepest parts of the ocean ocean floor.

Based on various molecular and genetic compositions, the domain Archaea is subdivided into five charactrristics phyla that include:. The phylum Euryarchaeota is one of the best-studied phyla of the domain Archaea. Consisting of more than 70 genera, members of the phylum are extremely physiologically diverse with the ability to survive some of the most extreme environments around the world.

The following are characteristics of different groups of the phylum Euryarchaeota:. Euryarchaeotae is composed of mesophilic, thermophilic and psychrotolerant species spread across eight 8 classes.

Class Archaeoglobi - The class Archaeoglobi is made up of a single order Archaeoglobales and family Archaeoglobaceae. Archaeoglobaceae is further divided into three genera that include Ard, Geoglobus, and Archaeoglobus. Like class Thermococci, members of Archaeoglobi are spherical in appearance and thus may be described as having a coccoid morphology.

Some of the main characteristics of this group include:. Class Protoarchaea - Also known as class Thermococci, Protoarchaea is also made up of a single order Thermococcales and family Thermococcaceae. The family Thermococcaceae is further divided into the genera Pyrococcus, Thermococcus, and Paleococcus. With the exception of a few species, a majority of species in these genera have the following characteristics:.

Class Thermoplasmata - Class Thermoplasmata is made up one order Thermoplasmatales and three families. Members of this class have the following characteristics:.

Class Halobacteria - Consisting of about 30 genera, the Class Halobacteria is made up of organisms that are highly halophilic in nature. As ahat, they are able to thrive well in environments with high salt concentrations 30 to 36 percent sodium chloride. For this reason, they can be found in such extreme environments as the Dead Sea.

Some of the other important characteristics of the members of this class include:. Methanogens encompass four characteristkcs of the Phylum Euryarchaeota that are characterized by their ability to produce methane. These include Methanotherma, Methanobacteria, Methanopyri, and Methanomicrobia.

Apart from the ability to produce methane, all members of this group are obligate anaerobes that use carbon dioxide to accept electrons. As such, they cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen. Some of the other characteristics of Methanogens include:. Apart from the Phylum Euryarchaeotae, Phylum Crenarchaeota is the other group of organisms that has received a lot of wha over the years.

Although ade phylum contains fewer genera compared to the former, it consists of a great diversity whst organisms that can be found in various types of environments. Bacheria instance, whereas some of the species can be found in the soil, others can be found in high-temperature environments thermophiles. Compared to the phylum Euryarchaeotae, a single class Crenarchaeota of phylum Crenarchaeota has been identified so far. Crenarchaeota is further divided into five orders that include:.

Order Acidolobales - Members of this order are acidophiles that use sulfur during respiration as the electron acceptor. They are spherical in shape cocci and include members of two major families namely, Acidilobaceae and Caldispheraceae.

Order Desulfurococcales - This order is divided into family Pyrodictiaceae and family Desulfurococcaceae. Whereas some are cocci in their morphology the majority of Desulfurococcaceaeothers are rod-shaped. Some of the other characteristics of Order Desulfurococcales include:. Order Sulfolobales - The Order Sulfolobales consists bacteeria a single family Sulfolobaceae which is in turn made up of hyperthermophilic and acidophilic organisms spread across six genera.

Characteristics of the order Sulfolobaceae vary from one group of organisms to another. For instance, bcteria the genus Sulfurisphera is made up of an organism that is strictly organotrophic facultative anaerobe, members of Acidianus and Sulfolobus among others have been shown to use lithoautotrophic and organotrophic metabolism. Order Thermoproteales - This order is composed of two families Thermofilaceae and Thermoproteaceae that have the following characteristics:.

Order Fervidicoccales - This order consists of a single family and species that can be found in hot springs. The other three phyla of Archaea are not what are characteristics of bacteria understood and no valid representatives have been agreed on. The following are some of the characteristics of the three groups:. Korarchaeota - This phylum was discovered in both marine and terrestrial hot environments thus suggesting that members of the phylum are hyperthermophilic.

In order to determine the diversity and abundance of the group in nature, studies have been conducted in various environments and in a number of countries. Through these studies, it became evident that members of the phylum grow in environments that range between 70 to 97 degrees Celsius in temperature, and 2. Currently, very few organisms have been identified as belonging to the phylum. One example of this is the Candidatus Korarchaeum cryptofilum that was isolated from a culture containing sediments from Obsidian Pool.

Based on studies on the organism, the following characteristics were identified:. Nanoarchaeota - Like the phylum Korarchaeota, only one member Nanoarchaeum equitans of phylum Nanoarchaeota has currently been identified. They can also be found in hot springs and marine waters and consist of ammonia-oxidizing organisms.

What is the meaning of shanza in urdu of the main characteristics of Thaumarchaeota include:.

Apart from phylum divisions of Archaea, the domain is also divided into the following three groups:. Extreme halophiles include a variety of organisms that thrive in an environment characgeristics contain high salt concentrations. For optimal growth, extreme halophiles have been shown to require at least 1. Therefore, while many may tolerate high salt conditions, a good number have been shown to actually depend on such conditions for growth.

Examples how to improve hockey skating extreme halophiles include:. Methanogens are characterized by the inability to tolerate oxygen as well as the ability to produce methane.

Methane gas is therefore produced under anaerobic conditions and in the absence of such ions as ferric ions and nitrates. In whar where methanogens live in anoxic soils or in environments where other organisms produce oxygen, they produce methane at a high rate in order to bring about anoxic conditions. Because of their ability to produce methane, they have been used in some industries to produce the gas. Examples of methanogens include:. Hyperthermophiles are also commonly referred to as heat-loving prokaryotes.

This is because they are a group of Archaea that are capable of growing in temperatures of above 80 degrees Celsius. They are commonly found in environments with very high temperatures such as hot acid springs, in geothermal power plants as well as submarine volcanic habitats and areas with heated soil.

Apart from high temperatures, some Hyperthermophiles have also been shown to tolerate extreme acidity in their environments.

However, the majority, which is obligate anaerobes, grow well in environments that are either neutral or mildly acidic. Examples of Hyperthermophiles include:. Because of their diversity, archaeal cells display significant variance in morphology. Whereas some are rod-shaped, like many bacteria, others are spiral, disk shaped or spherical in shape. On the other hand, some have been shown to portray various irregular shapes.

Although Archaea is a distinct domain, it shares a number of characteristics with both Bacteria and Eukaryota. For instance, like bacteria, a majority of archaea have a cell wall that regulates osmosis and maintains the shape of the cell.

However, unlike bacteria, archaea do not have the peptidoglycan. Rather, they contain pseudopeptidoglycan consisting of N-acetyltalosamine uronic acid NAT while others have a cell wall made up of proteins or polysaccharides.

Both bacteria and archaea are also capable of locomotion in moist or liquid environments. This is made possible by the presence of flagella. Depending on the species, archaea may possess bqcteria one or several flagella allowing it to move from one point to another. Although they both possess flagella that allow for locomotion, the flagella characterristics and the structure of flagella is different between the two.

The other difference between archaea and bacteria is with regards to their cell membrane. While both have a cell membrane, there is a difference in how various components of the cell membrane are arranged in archaea. For instance, in archaea, the tails of the hydrophobic lipid are attached to the glycerol by ether linkages.

This is different from the ester linkage present in Bacteria and Eukaryota. With both Bacteria and Archaea being prokaryotes, the chromosome region what is the best screen resolution for my laptop composed of bodies known as nucleoids. Compared to Eukaryotes, these diffuse mass lack a membrane envelope and thus reside in the cytoplasm as DNA aggregates.

These extrachromosomal molecules of DNA are typically circular in shape with genes ranging from about 5 to Take a look at Eukaryotes also as well as Bacteria. Return to understanding the Kingdom Monera. Return to Unicellular Organisms Main Page. Return how to type tm symbol in word Prokaryotes Main How to diagnose parvovirus in dogs. Return from Archaea to MicroscopeMaster Home.

Elena V. Overview of Archaea. Jeffrey C. Cell Structure and Function in the Bacteria and Archaea. Fundamentals of Microbiology - Pommerville 9th Edition. Jet McLain. Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environ.


Characteristics. Corals have been found to form characteristic associations with symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria.] Corals have evolved in oligotrophic waters which are typically poor in nitrogen. Corals must therefore form a mutualistic relationship with nitrogen fixing organism, in this case the subject of this study, namely Symbiodinium. Oct 04,  · Bacteria Characteristics. Bacteria are single-celled organisms. They lack organelles such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, and they do not have the true nucleus found in eukaryotic cells. Instead, their DNA, a double strand that is continuous and circular, is located in a nucleoid. Bacteria in food are killed by cooking to temperatures above 73 °C ( °F). List of genera and microscopy features. Many genera contain pathogenic bacterial species. They often possess characteristics that help to classify and organize them into groups. The following is a partial listing.

Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease. Although most bacteria are harmless or often beneficial, some are pathogenic , with the number of species estimated as fewer than a hundred that are seen to cause infectious diseases in humans.

One of the bacterial diseases with the highest disease burden is tuberculosis , caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, which kills about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pathogenic bacteria contribute to other globally important diseases, such as pneumonia , which can be caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus and Pseudomonas , and foodborne illnesses , which can be caused by bacteria such as Shigella , Campylobacter , and Salmonella. Pathogenic bacteria also cause infections such as tetanus , typhoid fever , diphtheria , syphilis , and leprosy.

Pathogenic bacteria are also the cause of high infant mortality rates in developing countries. Koch's postulates are the standard to establish a causative relationship between a microbe and a disease. Each species has specific effect and causes symptoms in people who are infected.

Some, if not most people who are infected with a pathogenic bacteria do not have symptoms. Immunocompromised individuals are more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria. Some pathogenic bacteria cause disease under certain conditions, such as entry through the skin via a cut, through sexual activity or through a compromised immune function.

Streptococcus and Staphylococcus are part of the normal skin microbiota and typically reside on healthy skin or in the nasopharangeal region. Yet these species can potentially initiate skin infections.

They are also able to cause sepsis , pneumonia or meningitis. These infections can become quite serious creating a systemic inflammatory response resulting in massive vasodilation, shock, and death.

Other bacteria are opportunistic pathogens and cause disease mainly in people suffering from immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis. Examples of these opportunistic pathogens include Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Burkholderia cenocepacia , and Mycobacterium avium. Obligate intracellular parasites e. Chlamydophila , Ehrlichia , Rickettsia have the ability to only grow and replicate inside other cells.

Even these intracellular infections may be asymptomatic , requiring an incubation period. An example of this is Rickettsia which causes typhus. Another causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Chlamydia is a phylum of intracellular parasites. These pathogens can cause pneumonia or urinary tract infection and may be involved in coronary heart disease.

Other groups of intracellular bacterial pathogens include Salmonella , Neisseria , Brucella , Mycobacterium , Nocardia , Listeria , Francisella , Legionella , and Yersinia pestis. These can exist intracellularly, but can exist outside of host cells. Bacterial pathogens often cause infection in specific areas of the body. Others are generalists. The symptoms of disease appear as pathogenic bacteria damage host tissues or interfere with their function.

The bacteria can damage host cells directly. They can also cause damage indirectly by provoking an immune response that inadvertently damages host cells. Once pathogens attach to host cells, they can cause direct damage as the pathogens use the host cell for nutrients and produce waste products.

The acid decalcifies the tooth surface to cause dental caries. Endotoxins are the lipid portions of lipopolysaccharides that are part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxins are released when the bacteria lyses , which is why after antibiotic treatment, symptoms can worsen at first as the bacteria are killed and they release their endotoxins.

Exotoxins are secreted into the surrounding medium or released when the bacteria die and the cell wall breaks apart. An excessive or inappropriate immune response triggered by an infection may damage host cells. Iron is required for humans, as well as the growth of most bacteria.

To obtain free iron, some pathogens secrete proteins called siderophores , which take the iron away from iron-transport proteins by binding to the iron even more tightly. Once the iron-siderophore complex is formed, it is taken up by siderophore receptors on the bacterial surface and then that iron is brought into the bacterium.

Typically identification is done by growing the organism in a wide range of cultures which can take up to 48 hours. The growth is then visually or genomically identified. The cultured organism is then subjected to various assays to observe reactions to help further identify species and strain.

Bacterial infections may be treated with antibiotics , which are classified as bacteriocidal if they kill bacteria or bacteriostatic if they just prevent bacterial growth. There are many types of antibiotics and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the host.

For example, the antibiotics chloramphenicol and tetracyclin inhibit the bacterial ribosome but not the structurally different eukaryotic ribosome, so they exhibit selective toxicity. Both uses may be contributing to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations.

Infections can be prevented by antiseptic measures such as sterilizing the skin prior to piercing it with the needle of a syringe and by proper care of indwelling catheters. Surgical and dental instruments are also sterilized to prevent infection by bacteria. Disinfectants such as bleach are used to kill bacteria or other pathogens on surfaces to prevent contamination and further reduce the risk of infection.

Many genera contain pathogenic bacterial species. They often possess characteristics that help to classify and organize them into groups. The following is a partial listing. This is description of the more common genera and species presented with their clinical characteristics and treatments. Contact with cattle, sheep, goats and horses [44] Spores enter through inhalation or through abrasions [26]. Penicillin Doxycycline Ciprofloxacin Raxibacumab [46].

Anthrax vaccine [26] Autoclaving of equipment [26]. Aspiration prevention [47]. Contact with respiratory droplets expelled by infected human hosts. Whooping cough [26] [41] Secondary bacterial pneumonia [26]. Pertussis vaccine , [26] [41] such as in DPT vaccine [26] [41]. Ixodes hard ticks Reservoir in mice, other small mammals, and birds [48].

Lyme disease [49] [50]. Doxycycline for adults, amoxicillin for children, ceftriaxone for neurological involvement [49]. Wearing clothing that limits skin exposure to ticks. Better access to washing facilities [51] Reduce crowding [51] Pesticides [51]. Direct contact with infected animal [26] Oral, by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or milk products [26].

Brucellosis : mainly fever , muscular pain and night sweats. Fecal-oral from animals mammals and fowl [26] [41] Uncooked meat especially poultry [26] [41] Contaminated water [26]. Treat symptoms [26] Fluoroquinolone [41] such as ciprofloxacin [26] in severe cases [26].

Good hygiene [26] Avoiding contaminated water [26] Pasteurizing milk and milk products [26] Cooking meat especially poultry [26]. Respiratory droplets [26] [41]. Doxycycline [26] [41] Erythromycin [26] [41]. Trachoma [26] [41] Neonatal conjunctivitis [26] [41] Neonatal pneumonia [26] [41] Nongonococcal urethritis NGU [26] [41] Urethritis [26] [41] Pelvic inflammatory disease [26] [41] Epididymitis [26] [41] Prostatitis [26] [41] Lymphogranuloma venereum LGV [26] [41].

Erythromycin [26] [41] adults [41] Doxycycline [26] [41] infants and pregnant women [41]. Erythromycin or silver nitrate in newborn 's eyes [26] Safe sex [26] Abstinence [26]. Tetracycline [26] Doxycycline [26] Erythromycin [26]. Botulism : Mainly muscle weakness and paralysis [41]. Antitoxin [26] [41] Penicillin [41] Hyperbaric oxygen [41] Mechanical ventilation [41].

Gut flora , [26] [41] overgrowing when other flora is depleted [26]. Pseudomembranous colitis [26] [41]. Discontinuing responsible antibiotic [26] [41] Vancomycin or metronidazole if severe [26] [41]. Spores in soil [26] [41] Vaginal flora and gut flora [26]. Anaerobic cellulitis [26] [41] Gas gangrene [26] [41] Acute food poisoning [26] [41]. Debridement or amputation [26] [41] Hyperbaric medicine [26] [41] High doses of doxycycline [26] or penicillin G [26] [41] and clindamycin [41] Food poisoning: Supportive care is sufficient [26].

Spores in soil, skin penetration through wounds [26] [41]. Tetanus : muscle spasms [53]. Tetanus immune globulin [26] [41] Sedatives [26] Muscle relaxants [26] Mechanical ventilation [26] [41] Penicillin or metronidazole [41]. Tetanus vaccine such as in the DPT vaccine [26]. Diphtheria : Fever , sore throat and neck swelling, potentially narrowing airways. Horse serum antitoxin Erythromycin Penicillin. Part of gut flora , [41] opportunistic or entering through GI tract or urinary system wounds [26].

Bacterial endocarditis , [41] biliary tract infections, [41] urinary tract infections [41]. Ampicillin combined with aminoglycoside in endocarditis [41] Vancomycin [26]. No vaccine Hand washing and other nosocomial prevention. Meningitis: [26]. Diarrhea: [26]. Heating water [26]. Prevention of exposure [26].