24 Animal Cloning Pros and Cons
Nuclear cloning involves the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor cells used in a technique known as nuclear transfer (NT). However, at present it is an inefficient process: in cattle, only around 6% of the embryos transferred to the reproductive tracts of recipient cows result in healthy, longterm surviving datingyougirl.com by: Dec 16, · The disadvantage of cloning animals is that prolonged use of this technology would create a genetic bottleneck. With all animals have nearly the same, if not identical, genetic makeup, the species would be at an increased risk of extinction because of the risks of inbreeding.
An efficient animal cloning technology would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture, human medicine, and animal conservation. Nuclear cloning ;roblems the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor cells used in a technique known as nuclear transfer NT. Of concern are the high losses throughout gestation, during birth and in the post-natal period through to adulthood. Many of the pregnancy losses relate to failure of the placenta to develop and function correctly.
Placental dysfunction may also have an adverse influence on postnatal health. These anomalies are probably due to incorrect epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following NT, leading to inappropriate how to bring up a baby of gene expression during the development of clones.
Whilst some physiological tests on surviving clones suggest normality, other reports indicate a variety of post-natal clone-associated abnormalities. Importantly, to date it appears that these clone-associated phenotypes problesm not transmitted to offspring following sexual reproduction. This indicates that they represent epigenetic errors, rather than genetic errors, which are corrected during gametogenesis. Whilst wwith needs confirmation at the molecular level, it provides initial confidence in the first application of NT in agriculture, namely, the production of small numbers of cloned sires from genetically elite bulls, for natural mating, to effectively disseminate genetic gain.
In addition to the animal welfare concerns with the technology, the underlying health of the animals and the consequential effect on food safety are critical aspects that require investigation to gain regulatory and consumer acceptance.
Future improvements in animal cloning will largely arise from a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms of reprogramming. Abstract An efficient animal cloning technology would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture, human medicine, and animal conservation.
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What is animal cloning and how do scientists create transgenic animals?
May 11, · This is known as reproductive cloning and the technique is used today in order to improve livestock breeding (Weintraub, ). Reproductive cloning “involves creating an animal that is genetically identical to a donor animal through somatic cell nuclear transfer” (NYSTEM, ).Author: Berkeley Master of Engineering. The Ethical Issues in Animal Cloning Given the diverse motivations and types of animal cloning, the ethical terrain is datingyougirl.com summary,animal cloning raises two types of moral problems:it may have negative consequences to animals, human beings, or the environment; and it may violate important moral prohibitions or datingyougirl.com by: Myth: Cloning results in severely damaged animals that suffer, and continue to have health problems all their lives. The vast majority of swine and goat .
Cloning has been around since when Robert Briggs and Thomas King externally fertilized and developed a leopard frog using somatic cell nuclear transfer. Though scientists had discussed the need for communication about the ethical ramifications of cloning since as early as , it was not until the successful cloning of a sheep named Dolly in that cloning came to the forefront of scientific and societal discussion.
As a result of the continuity of fast-paced scientific discovery, the issues surrounding cloning of both animals and humans remain a hot topic, with people divided on both sides of the controversy.
From the production of vaccines to organ regrowth for transplantation, cloning from stem cells can improve people's health. In regards to the cloning of whole organisms, however, the benefits are largely found in increasing nutrition derived from food. In the United States, you frequently see whole organism cloning in the genetically modified foods you eat, which are FDA approved and not limited to plants but also to animals such as cloned pigs modified to be a source of omega-3 fatty acids that usually come from fish and certain seeds.
Additionally, the replacement of dead or dying household pets and children with genetic disorders, termed ''reproductive cloning,'' has become a social argument in favor of cloning.
In fact, in a company devoted solely to the cloning of household pets opened, and though it closed after only a short, two-year stint, some people continue to see this as a valuable route for cloning research.
From a religious standpoint, many argue that the act of cloning makes humans God, an equality not viewed as appropriate as humans lack omniscience. Morally, the arguments are more broad. The ethics of animal research come into play, where many, such as the moral philosopher Peter Singer, believe that all animals are created equal, suggesting animal testing in science should be completely eliminated.
The possibilities of unforeseen health risks in cloned organisms and potential negative effects of decreased genetic variation on the human gene pool are seen as ethical causes for concern in addition to the mixed ethical and social consideration of increasing population sizes when worldwide resource availability is a problem.
The social issues of cloning tend to focus on human clones in terms of both availability of cloning technology and integration of clones into society.
Reproductive cloning raises the question of cost and who should have access. However, the biggest social argument is that cloning negates a person's right to individuality and ignores the potential psychological effects of such a parentless and de-individualized identity.
Legally, funding has always been a concern for cloning research. Many believe the government and taxpayer money should not support research not agreed upon by a clear majority, and in this respect, the U. Congress has continued to prohibit use of taxpayer dollars for any research that may result in the death of human embryos. However, reproductive animal cloning continues not just in the U. The biggest legal issues concerning animal clones are who should be responsible for and at what depth there should be oversight and accountability, as well as the legal right to patent live organisms.
Tiffany Andras received her bachelor's and master's degrees from Georgia Tech in Biology and Biochemistry. Her work was first published in the "Journal of Chemical Ecology" as both a full-length article and the journal's cover.
She has been writing professionally since , with articles spanning topics from French culture to nutrition and brain disorders. Regardless of how old we are, we never stop learning. Classroom is the educational resource for people of all ages.
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