Polio Disease and Poliovirus
Jul 15, · There are three wild types of poliovirus (WPV) – type 1, type 2, and type 3. People need to be protected against all three types of the virus in order to prevent polio disease and the polio vaccination is the best protection. Type 2 wild poliovirus was declared eradicated in September , with the last virus detected in India in Sep 17, · Paralytic polio leads to paralysis in the spinal cord (spinal polio), brainstem (bulbar polio), or both (bulbospinal polio). Initial symptoms are similar to non-paralytic polio. But after a week.
Poliomyelitis polio is a disease caused by poliovirus. It happens mostly in children younger than 5 and in parts of the world that have not yet seen wide-scale vaccination. Polio is extremely rare in the United States and many other countries because most people have gotten vaccinated. But polio remains a problem in small pockets of the world.
Until everyone gets vaccinated, there is a possibility that polio can become a widespread problem again.
Of every polio infections, one case leads to paralysis, usually in the legs. Some people in the United States who had polio early in their life still need care for symptoms much later in life. A virus called poliovirus causes polio. The virus enters the body through the mouth or nose, getting into the digestive and respiratory breathing systems. It multiplies in the throat and intestines.
From there, it can enter the bloodstream. It can also attack the nervous system, the nerve network that helps the brain communicate with the hhe of the body. There are three strains of poliovirus: types 1, 2 and 3. Types 2 and 3 have been eradicated eliminatedbut type 1 still affects people in a few countries. Poliio some parts of the world, a live poliovirus vaccine is still used. This oral live virus vaccine can very rarely cause waht. In the United States and many areas of the world, this live virus vaccine is no longer used and an inactivated vaccine that cannot cause polio is used instead.
The virus goes from person to person in two ways. People with poliovirus in their bodies shed the virus through their feces poop. The virus can then spread to other people when they swallow contaminated water or food.
This exposure is more likely in areas that have poor hygiene or weak systems to clean water. A person can also pick up the virus after someone sneezes or coughs. If symptoms do occur, they usually appear about seven to 10 days after exposure to the virus. But symptoms can take as long as 35 days to show up. Early symptoms of polio are like those of influenza flu and last about two to 10 days:. While most people fully recover from polio, the disease can ae very serious problems.
These problems thrde sometimes develop quickly hours after infection and include:. If you have symptoms of polio, contact a healthcare provider. The healthcare provider will ask you about your symptoms and whether you have traveled recently.
Because polio symptoms look a lot like flu symptoms, the healthcare provider may order tests to rule out more common viral conditions. The inactivated polio vaccine used in the United States is very effective and safe, and cannot cause polio. Everyone should get vaccinated for polio, preferably during childhood.
The CDC tracks vaccine safety and problems. Also touch base with your provider before future doses. The syndrome can occur up to 40 years after the initial disease.
If a person had a bad case of polio, then post-polio syndrome may be more severe. If a person had a less serious case of polio, they may not get post-polio syndrome or how to use a digital voltmeter have a mild case. Symptoms of post-polio syndrome may start slowly and then get worse. Symptoms of post-polio syndrome are rarely life-threatening, but they can cause difficulties with:.
Polio is a serious condition but very rare in the United States thanks to vaccination. Everyone what is thunder god vine get a series poloo vaccine shots. People who plan to travel to certain what is a group of wild pigs called or work near poliovirus should get a booster shot. Talk to your healthcare provider if you need to get vaccinated.
Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. Polio Polio is a disease caused by poliovirus. The disease can cause paralysis or even death. It can also lead to post-polio syndrome many years later. How common is polio? How common are paralysis and death from polio? Symptoms and Causes What causes polio? Is ard contagious? What are the symptoms of polio?
Early symptoms of polio are like those of influenza flu and last about two to 10 days: Fatigue. Neck stiffness. Pain in the arms and legs. These problems can sometimes develop quickly hours after infection what separated the tidewater and the piedmont include: Numbnessa feeling of pins and needles or tingling in the legs or arms.
Paralysis in the legs, arms or torso. Trouble breathing because of muscle paralysis in the lungs. Death when the muscles you use to breathe become paralyzed. Diagnosis and Tests How is polio diagnosed? To confirm polio, a healthcare provider will take a small sample of: Cerebrospinal fluid liquid around trhee brain and spinal cord. Saliva from your throat. Stool poop. The healthcare team will look at the how to make a pda under a microscope to identify poliovirus.
Management and Treatment How is polio treated? Heat to soothe the muscles. Medications that relax the muscles, also called antispasmodic drugs. Physical therapy and exercises to help protect the muscles. Mechanical ventilationor a machine that helps you breathe. Prevention How do I prevent polio? The best prevention against polio is a series of four vaccine shots in the arm or leg. The recommended vaccination schedule for children is based on age: First shot when 2 months old.
Second shot when 4 months old. Third shot between 6 and 18 months old. Second dose a month or two later. Final dose six to 12 months after the second. Who should get the vaccine? You work with patients who may have gotten exposed to poliovirus. Check the list of countries where polio remains a risk, and talk to your healthcare provider. Are polio vaccines safe? Any vaccine may cause: Allergic reaction. Pain poolio lasts awhile in rare cases. Redness where the needle entered the skin. Soreness in the area where what are the three types of polio got the shot.
What does post-polio syndrome feel like? Muscle atrophy slow decrease in muscle size. New weakness in the same muscles that polio affected. Pain in the joints. Scoliosis curved spine. Symptoms of post-polio syndrome are rarely life-threatening, but they can cause thpes with: Breathing. Participating in normal activities. Is post-polio syndrome contagious, too? Post-polio syndrome is not contagious. Only someone who once typfs polio can have the syndrome. Living With What can I ask my healthcare provider about polio?
Consider asking your healthcare provider: Is it possible that something else is causing the symptoms? Am I contagious?
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There are three serotypes of wild poliovirus type 1, type 2, and type 3 each with a slightly different capsid protein. Immunity to one serotype does not give confer immunity to the other two. Outbreaks of poliovirus were largely unknown prior to the 20th century. May 04, · Two doses of IPV provides 90% immunity (protection) to all three types of poliovirus; 3 doses provides at least 99% immunity. How Well Does the Polio Vaccine Work? Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), which is the only polio vaccine that has been given in the United States since , protects almost all children (99 out of ) who get all. There are three strains of poliovirus: types 1, 2 and 3. Types 2 and 3 have been eradicated (eliminated), but type 1 still affects people in a few countries. In some parts of the world, a live poliovirus vaccine is still used. This oral live virus vaccine can very rarely cause polio.
Polio is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes nerve injury leading to paralysis, difficulty breathing and sometimes death. In the U. Today, despite a worldwide effort to wipe out polio, poliovirus continues to affect children and adults in parts of Asia and Africa.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC advises taking precautions to protect yourself from polio if you're traveling anywhere there's a risk of polio. Adults who have been vaccinated who plan to travel to an area where polio is occurring should receive a booster dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine IPV. Immunity after a booster lasts a lifetime. The basic unit of communication in the nervous system is the nerve cell neuron.
Each nerve cell consists of the cell body, which includes the nucleus, a major branching fiber axon and numerous smaller branching fibers dendrites. The myelin sheath is fatty material that covers, insulates and protects nerves of the brain and spinal cord.
Although polio can cause paralysis and death, the majority of people who are infected with the virus don't get sick and aren't aware they've been infected. Some people who develop symptoms from the poliovirus contract a type of polio that doesn't lead to paralysis abortive polio.
This usually causes the same mild, flu-like signs and symptoms typical of other viral illnesses. This most serious form of the disease is rare. Initial signs and symptoms of paralytic polio, such as fever and headache, often mimic those of nonparalytic polio. Within a week, however, other signs and symptoms appear, including:. Post-polio syndrome is a cluster of disabling signs and symptoms that affect some people years after having polio.
Common signs and symptoms include:. Check with your doctor for polio vaccination recommendations before traveling to a part of the world where polio still occurs naturally or where oral polio vaccine OPV is used, such as Central and South America, Africa and Asia.
Poliovirus can be transmitted through direct contact with someone infected with the virus or, less commonly, through contaminated food and water.
People carrying the poliovirus can spread the virus for weeks in their feces. People who have the virus but don't have symptoms can pass the virus to others. Polio mainly affects children younger than 5. However, anyone who hasn't been vaccinated is at risk of developing the disease. Paralytic polio can lead to temporary or permanent muscle paralysis, disability, bone deformities and death.
Most children in the United States receive four doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine IPV at the following ages:. IPV is safe for people with weakened immune systems, although it's not certain just how protective the vaccine is in cases of severe immune deficiency. Common side effects are pain and redness at the injection site.
IPV can cause an allergic reaction in some people. Because the vaccine contains trace amounts of the antibiotics streptomycin, polymyxin B and neomycin, it shouldn't be given to anyone who's reacted to these medications.
Signs and symptoms of an allergic reaction usually occur within minutes to a few hours after the shot. Watch for:. However, certain adults at high risk of polio who have had a primary vaccination series with either IPV or the oral polio vaccine OPV should receive a single booster shot of IPV.
A single booster dose of IPV lasts a lifetime. Adults at risk include those who are traveling to parts of the world where polio still occurs or those who care for people who have polio. If you're unvaccinated or your vaccination status is undocumented, get a series of primary polio vaccination shots — two doses of IPV at four- to eight-week intervals and a third dose six to 12 months after the second dose.
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This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Overview Polio is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes nerve injury leading to paralysis, difficulty breathing and sometimes death.
Nerve cell neuron Open pop-up dialog box Close. Nerve cell neuron The basic unit of communication in the nervous system is the nerve cell neuron. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic. Share on: Facebook Twitter. Show references Jubelt B. Polio and infectious diseases of the anterior horn. Accessed Oct.
What is polio? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. World Health Organization. Brunette GW, et al. Infectious diseases related to travel. CDC Yellow Book New York, N. Modlin JF. Poliovirus vaccination. Simionescu L, et al. Post-polio syndrome. Mayo Clinic Marketplace Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic.