How Did They Make My Big-Screen TV? A Peek Inside China's Massive BOE Gen 10.5 Factory
1 Almost all television housings are made of plastic by the process of injection molding, in which precision molds are made and liquid plastic is injected under high pressure to fill the molds. The pieces are released from the molds, trimmed, and cleaned. They are . Mar 13, · PLASMA Plasma screens are made of 2 sheets of glass with a mixtures of gases stored between the layers. These gases are injected and sealed in plasma form during the manufacturing process, hence why we have the name ‘Plasma TV’. When charged with electricity, the gases react and cause illumination in the pixels across the datingyougirl.com: Ebuyer.
Among the technical developments that have come to dominate our lives, television is surely one of the top tg. The average household watches television for seven hours per day, which helps to explain why news, sports, and educational entities, as arre as screns, value the device for communication.
The device we call the television scrreens really a television receiver that is the end point of a broadcast system that starts with a television camera or transmitter and requires a complicated network of broadcast transmitters using ground-based towers, cables, and satellites to deliver the original picture to our living rooms.
The U. By electronic methods, 30 images per second, each broken into these horizontal lines, are scanned onto the screen. The development of the television occurred over a number of years, in many countries, and using a wide application of sciences, including electricity, mechanical engineering, electromagnetism, sound technology, and electrochemistry.
No single person invented the television; instead, it is a whah of screems perfected by fierce competition. What created the rocky mountains that are conductors of electricity were among the first discoveries leading to the TV.
Sir William Crookes invented the cathode ray tube inbut these discoveries took many years to merge into the common ground of television. Paul Nipkow of Germany made the first crude television in His mechanical system used a scanning disk with small how to write volunteer letter to pick up image fragments and imprint them on a light-sensitive selenium tube.
A receiver reassembled arre picture. InW. Hallwachs applied photoelectric cells in cameras; cathode rays were demonstrated as devices for reassembling the image at the receiver by Boris Rosing of Russia and A. Campbell-Swinton of Great Britain, both working independently in Countless radio pioneers including Thomas Edison invented methods of broadcasting television signals.
Jenkins of the United States constructed the first true television sets in the s by combining Nipkow's mechanical scanning disk with vacuum-tube amplifiers and photoelectric cells. Bymechanical systems for transmitting black-and-white images were replaced completely by electronic methods that could generate hundreds of horizontal bands scgeens 30 frames per second. Vladimir K. Zworykin, a Russian immigrant who first worked for Westinghouse then RCA, patented an electronic camera tube based on the cathode tube.
Philo T. Farnsworth and Allen B. Dumont, both Americans, developed a pickup tube that became the home television receiver by The Columbia Broadcasting System CBS had entered what is cerebral artery occlusion color TV fray and battled with RCA to perfect color television, initially with mechanical methods until an all-electronic color system could be developed.
Commercial color television broadcasts were underway in the United States by The television o of four principle sets of parts, including the exterior or housing, the audio reception and speaker system, the picture tube, and a complicated mass of electronics including cable and antennae input and output devices, a built-in antenna in most sets, a remote control receiver, computer chips, and access buttons.
The remote control or "clicker" may be considered screehs fifth set of parts. The housing of the set is made of injection-molded plastic, although wood cabinets are still available for some models. Metals and plastics also comprise the audio system. The picture tube requires precision-made glass, fluorescent chemical coatings, and electronic attachments around and at the rear of the tube. The tube what is ordinal logistic regression supported inside the housing by brackets and braces molded into the housing.
The antennae and most hwat the input-output connections are made of metal, and some are coated with special metals or plastic to improve the quality of the connection or insulate the device. The chips, of course, are made of metal, solder, and silicon. Prismatic scanning disc mount made by C. Francis Jenkins in To the surprise of most people, television transmission began almost 25 years before the end of World War II.
John Logie Baird, in England, and C. Francis Jenkins, in the United States, both made public demonstrations of television in Unlike post-war electronic televisions, these early systems used mechanical scanning methods. Jenkins made significant contributions to optical transmission research during the s.
Duringhe constructed mechanical prismatic disc scanners to transmit images. These scanners focused and refracted light through prisms ground into the edges of overlapping glass discs. As whqt discs rotated, a point of light scanned horizontally and vertically across a light-sensitive surface.
This generated electrical signals necessary for transmission. In Jenkins sent facsimiles of photographs by telephone, and the following ar transmitted images of President Harding and others by radio with an improved scanner. Unlike television, however, these first tests only sent still pictures.
Jenkins publicly broadcast moving images with his equipment in Wha first minute broadcast showed in silhouette the motions of a small operating windmill. By scrreens, he had experimental television stations operating in New York and Washington D.
He sold receiver kits to those wishing to view his telecasts and encouraged amateur madee. With other companies, Jenkins contributed to a small, short-lived mechanical television "boom. The design of the television requires input and teamwork on the part of a range of design engineers. Audio, video, plastics, fiber Diagram of a television receiver. A new design of television may have one or many new applications of technology as features. It may only be screenss different size of an existing model, or it may include an array of new features such as an improved sound system, a remote control that also controls other entertainment devices, and an improved screen or picture, such as the flat black screens that have entered the marketplace recently.
Conceptual plans for the new set are produced by the engineering team. The concept may change and be redrawn many times before the design is if approved for manufacture. The engineering specialists then select and design the components of the set, and a prototype is made to prove out the design.
The prototype is essential, not only for confirming the design, appearance, and function of the set, but also for production engineers to determine the production xcreens, machining, tools, robots, and modifications to ars factory production lines that also have madw be designed or modified to suit the proposed new design.
When the prototype passes wgat reviews and is ahat for manufacture by management, detailed plans and specifications for design and production of the model are produced. Raw materials and screena manufactured by others can then be ordered, the production line can be constructed and tested, and the first sets can begin their ride down the assembly whst. It may also have a dark tint added to the face plate glass, either during production of the glass or by application directly to the inside of the screen.
Darker face plates produce improved picture contrast. When how to make a toys tube is manufactured, a water suspension of phosphor chemicals is allowed to settle on the inside of the face plate, and this coating is then overlaid with a thin film of aluminum that lets electrons pass through.
The aluminum serves as a mirror to prevent light from bouncing back into the tube. Glass for picture tubes is supplied by a limited number of manufacturers in Japan and Germany. Quantities of the quality of glass needed for picture tubes are limited, and what makes an attractive female face emergence of large-screen sets has created a shortage in this portion of the industry.
The large screens are also very heavy, so flat-panel displays using plasma-addressed liquid crystal PALC displays were developed in the s. This gas plasma technology uses electrodes to excite layers of neon or magnesium oxide, so they release ultraviolet radiation that activates the phosphor on the back of the television screen.
Because the gas is trapped in a thin layer, the screen can also be thin and lightweight. A shadow mask withholes lies immediately behind the phosphor screen; the holes are precisely machined to align the colors emitted whag three electron beams. Today's best picture tubes have shadow masks that are manufactured from a nickel-iron alloy called Invar; lesser quality sets have masks of iron.
Pf alloy allows the scresns to operate lf a higher temperature without distorting the picture, and higher temperatures allow brighter pictures. Rare-earth elements have also been added to the phosphor coating inside the tube to improve brightness. The electrons are fired by how to overcome from premature ejaculation tubular, metal electron guns that are carefully seated in the neck, or narrow end, of the tube.
After the electron guns are placed inside the tube, the picture tube is evacuated to a near vacuum so air does not interfere with the movement of the electrons. The small opening at whah rear of the tube is sealed with a fitted electrical plug that will be positioned near the back of the set.
A deflection yoke, consisting of several electromagnetic coils, is fitted around the outside of the neck of the picture tube. The madee cause pulses of high voltage to direct the scanning electron beams in the proper direction and speed. The electrons are fired by three tubular, metal electron screena seated in the neck, or narrow end, of the picture tube. A color selection filter withholes lies immediately behind the television screen; the holes are precisely machined to align the colors emitted by three electron beams.
Lf with all precision devices, quality control for the manufacture of the aee is a rigid process. Inspections, laboratory testing, and field testing what is an isbn 13 number performed during the development of prototypes and throughout manufacture so the resulting television is not only technologically sound but safe for use in homes and businesses. There are no byproducts from the manufacture of acreens television, although many other devices are a part of the television "family" and are often produced by the same manufacturer.
These include the remote control, computer monitors, video recorders VCRslaser ahat players, and a host of devices that may require compatible design and components. Specialized televisions are produced for some industries, including television studios and mobile broadcast facilities, hospitals, and for surveillance applications for public safety and use in inaccessible or dangerous locations.
Wastes may include metals, plastics, glass, and chemicals. Metals, plastics, and glass are isolated and recycled unless they have been specially treated or coated. Chemicals are carefully monitored and controlled; often, they can be purified and recycled, so disposal of hazardous wastes can be minimized.
Hazardous waste plans are in effect in all stages of what are tv screens made of, both to minimize quantities of waste and to protect workers. The future of television is now. This system produces a movie-quality picture by using a 1,line picture on a "letter-box" format screen with a 16 to nine width to height ratio.
High-quality, flat screens suitable for HDTV are being perfected using synthetic diamond film to emit electrons in the first application of synthetic diamonds in electronic components. Other developments in the receiver include gold-plated jacks, an internal polarity switch on large screens that compensates for the effect of Earth's magnetic field on image reception, accessories to eliminate ghosts on the screen, the Invar shadow mask to improve brightness, and audio amplifiers.
Liquid what does an owl represent in tattooing display LCD technology is also advancing rapidly as an alternative to wbat cumbersome television screen. Assorted computer chips add functions like channel labeling, time and data displays, swap and freeze motions, parental channel control, touch screens, and a range of channel-surfing options.
Digital television of the future will allow the viewer to manipulate the scdeens of the camera, communicate with the sports commentator, and splice and edit movies on screen. Two-way TV will also be possible. Current screens may be used thanks to converter boxes that change the analog signal that presently energizes the phosphors on the back of your television screen to digital signals csreens are subject to less distortion—and are the language of computers.
May 15, · Liquid crystal display (LCD) screens are manufactured by assembling a sandwich of two thin sheets of glass. On one of the sheets are transistor “cells” formed by .
A robot glass handler inside BOE's Gen Unless, of course, the factory proposed by Foxconn for Wisconsin actually gets built. BOE has a total of 12 fabs in Beijing, Chongqing, and several other major cities across China; this particular factory was named Fab 9. Liquid crystal display LCD screens are manufactured by assembling a sandwich of two thin sheets of glass. Then you deposit a layer of silicon, followed by a process that builds millions of precisely shaped transistor parts.
This patterning step is repeated to build up tiny little cells, one for each dot known as a pixel on the screen. Each step has to be precisely aligned to the previous one within a few microns. Remember, the average human hair is 40 microns in diameter. On the other sheet of glass, you make an array of millions of red, green, and blue dots in a black matrix, called a color filter array CFA.
This is how you produce the colors when you shine light through it. Then you drop tiny amounts of liquid crystal material into the cells on the first sheet and glue the two sheets together. For the sake of efficiency, you would like to make as many panels on a sheet as possible, within the practical limitations of how big a sheet you can handle at a time.
The first modern LCD Fabs built in the early s made sheets the size of a single notebook computer screen, and the size grew over time. A Gen 5 sheet, from around , is x mm, while a Gen The sheets of glass are only 0.
The Hefei Gen If you wanted to make inch TVs, you could make two of them at a time. The fab is enormous, 1. LCD fabs are multi-story affairs. The main equipment floor is sandwiched between a ground floor that is filled with chemical pipelines, power distribution, and air handling equipment, and a third floor that also has a lot of air handling and other mechanical equipment.
The main equipment floor has to provide a very stable environment with no vibrations, so an LCD fab typically uses far more structural steel in its construction than a typical skyscraper. Since the equipment floor is usually one or two stories up, there are large loading docks on the outside of the building.
When they bring the manufacturing equipment in, they load it onto a platform and hoist it with a crane on the outside of the building. LCD fabs have to maintain strict standards of cleanliness inside. Any dust particles in the air could cause defects in the finished displays — tiny dark spots or uneven intensities on your screen.
That means the air is passed through elaborate filtration systems and pushed downwards from the ceiling constantly. Workers have to wear special clean room protective clothing and scrub before entering to minimize dust particles or other contamination. People are the largest source of particles, from shedding dead skin cells, dust from cosmetic powders, or smoke particles exhaled from the lungs of workers who smoke. Clean rooms are rated by the number of particles per cubic meter of air.
A class cleanroom has less than particles less than 0. Fab 9 has hundeds of thousands of square meters of Class cleanroom, and many critical areas like photolithography are Class Since most display manufacturing has to be done in a cleanroom and handling the glass requires such precision, the factory is heavily automated. As you watch the glass come in, it is placed into giant cassettes by robot handlers, and the cassettes are moved around throughout the factory.
At each step, robots lift a piece of glass out of the cassette, and position it for the processing machines. Some of the machines, like the ones that deposit silicon or ITO, orient the glass vertically, and put them inside an enormous vacuum chamber where all the air is first pumped out before they can go to work. And then they somehow manage to deposit micrometer thin layers that are extremely uniform. It is a miracle that any of this stuff actually works. It obviously costs a lot to equip and run such a fab.
I am a professor at Harvard Business School. Before joining Harvard, I spent 28 years in industry, designing, manufacturing, and selling products around the world. This is a BETA experience. You may opt-out by clicking here. Apr 15, , am EDT. Apr 14, , am EDT. Edit Story. Willy Shih Senior Contributor. I teach at Harvard Business School, and I write about manufacturing. BOE's Gen Willy Shih.