The WifeТs Lament
The poem does not have an obviously historical or mythological references, though it is definitely allusive. We do not have an author identified, nor even a precise date of composition. ItТs not even totally certain to pair with it УThe HusbandТs MessageФ that also appears in the Exeter Book. The story is vague and incomplete, of course. Feb 15, †Ј Question: "What does it mean that iron sharpens iron?" Answer: The phrase Уiron sharpens ironФ is found in Proverbs УAs iron sharpens iron, so one man sharpens another.Ф There is mutual benefit in the rubbing of two iron blades together; the edges become sharper, making the knives more efficient in their task to cut and slice.
The historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era,  the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or what does lament mean in english identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu Indus river. The historical mwan of Hindu self-identity eman the local Indian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear.
At more than 1. The vast majority of Hindusapproximately million The word Hindu is an exonym. The actual term 'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin How to mount an antenna, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus Sanskrit: Sindhu ",  more specifically in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I.
Among the earliest known records of 'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang.
Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma. Al-Biruni 's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hindand the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term how to get pasty white skin, where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, and retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". Slowly, the Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders.
The text Prithviraj Rasoby Chanda Baradai, about the CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghoriis full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", and at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords;" however, the date of this text is unclear and considered by most scholars to be more recent.
Other prominent mentions of 'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word 'Hindu' partly implies how to form verbs from noun and adjective religious identity in contrast to 'Turks' or Islamic religious identity.
These texts used it to contrast Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas foreigners or Mlecchas barbarianswith the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma ". One of the earliest but ambiguous uses of the word Hindu is, states Arvind Sharmain the 'Brahmanabad settlement' which Muhammad ibn Qasim made with non-Muslims after the Arab invasion of northwestern Sindh region of India, in CE. The term 'Hindu' meant people who were non-Muslims, and it included Buddhists of the region.
It was so called, wrote Ibn Battuta, because many Indian slaves died there of snow cold, as they were marched across that mountain range. The term Hindu there is ambivalent and could mean geographical region or religion. The term Hindu appears in the texts from the Mughal Empire era. It broadly refers to non-Muslims.
Pretending to be a enlgish guide, he had won over as devotees many simple-minded Indians and even whay ignorant, stupid Muslims lmaent broadcasting his claims to be a saint.
Giving him some elementary spiritual precepts picked up here mwan there, he made a mark with saffron on his forehead, which is called qashqa in the idiom of the Hindus and which they consider lucky. During im colonial era, the term Hindu had connotations of native religions of India, that is religions other than Christianity and Islam. Beyond the stipulations how do i deposit cash into my chase account British law, colonial orientalists and particularly the influential Asiatick Researches founded in the 18th century, how many stores does quiktrip have called The Asiatic Societyinitially identified just two religions in India Ч Islam, englih Hinduism.
These orientalists included all Indian religions such as Buddhism as a subgroup of Hinduism in the 18th century. The text, by the early 19th century, began dividing Hindus into separate groups, for chronology studies of the various beliefs. Among the earliest terms to emerge were Seeks and their College later spelled Sikhs by Charles WilkinsBoudhism later spelled Buddhismand in the 9th volume of Asiatick Researches report on religions in India, the term Jainism received notice.
According to Pennington, the terms Laemnt and Hinduism were thus constructed for colonial studies of India.
The various sub-divisions and separation of subgroup terms were assumed to be result what does lament mean in english "communal conflict", and Hindu was constructed by these orientalists to imply people who adhered to "ancient default oppressive religious substratum of India", states Pennington.
However, these midth-century reports offered no indication of doctrinal or ritual differences between Hindu and Buddhist, or other newly constructed religious identities. In contemporary era, the term Hindus are individuals who identify with one or more aspects of Hinduismwhether they are practising or non-practicing or Laissez-faire. Hindus subscribe to a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but have no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, nor a single founding prophet; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or humanist.
InEnglksh Justice P. Gajendragadkar was quoted in an Indian Supreme Court ruling:  . Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, Hindus share philosophical concepts, such as but not limiting to dharmakarmakamaarthamoksha how to watch youtube videos online samsaraeven if each subscribes to a diversity of views.
In the Constitution of Indiathe word "Hindu" has been used in some places to denote persons professing any of these religions: HinduismJainismBuddhism or Sikhism. The Republic of India is in the peculiar situation that the Supreme Court of India has repeatedly been called upon to define "Hinduism" because the Constitution of Indiawhile it prohibits "discrimination of any citizen" on grounds of religion in article 15, article 30 foresees special rights for "All minorities, whether based on religion or language".
As a consequence, religious groups have an interest in being recognised as what do dogs teach us from the Hindu majority in order to qualify as a "religious minority". Thus, the Supreme Court was forced to consider the question whether Eenglish is part of Hinduism in and Starting after the 10th century and particularly after the 12th century Islamic invasion, states Sheldon Pollockthe political response fused with the Indic religious culture and doctrines.
The Yadava king of Devagiri named Ramacandrafor example states Pollock, is described in a 13th-century record as, "How is this Rama to be described. Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya has questioned the Pollock theory and presented textual and inscriptional evidence. These wars were described not just using the mythical story of Rama from Ramayana, states Chattopadhyaya, the medieval records used a wide range of religious symbolism and myths that are now considered as part of Hindu literature.
The 14th-century Sanskrit text, Madhuravijayama memoir written by Gangadevithe wife of Vijayanagara prince, for example describes the consequences of engllish using religious terms, .
I very much lament for what happened to the groves in MadhuraThe coconut trees have all been whag and in their place are to be seen, rows of iron spikes with human skulls dangling at the points, In the highways which were once charming with anklets sound of beautiful women, are now heard ear-piercing noises of Brahmins being dragged, bound in iron-fetters, The waters of Tambraparniwhich were once white with sandal paste, are now flowing red with the blood of cows slaughtered by miscreants, Earth is no longer the lanent of wealth, nor does Indra give timely rains, The God of death takes his undue toll of what are left lives if undestroyed by the Yavanas [Muslims],  The Kali age now deserves deepest congratulations for being at the zenith of its power, gone is the sacred learning, hidden is refinement, hushed is the voice of Dharma.
The historiographic writings in Telugu language from the 13th- and 14th-century Kakatiya dynasty period presents a similar "alien other Turk " and "self-identity Hindu " contrast. Andrew Nicholson, in his review of scholarship on Hindu identity wha, states that the vernacular literature of Bhakti movement sants from 15th to 17th century, such as KabirAnantadas, Eknath, Wha, suggests that distinct religious identities, between Hindus and Turks Muslimshad formed during these centuries.
Scholars state that Hindu, Buddhist and Jain identities are retrospectively-introduced modern constructions. Overlaps in Jain-Hindu identities have included Jains worshipping Hindu deities, intermarriages between Jains and Hindus, and medieval era Jain temples featuring Hindu religious icons and sculpture.
Julius Lipner states that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, and Sikhs is a modern phenomena, but one that is a convenient abstraction. Scholars such as Fleming and Eck state that the post-Epic era literature from the 1st millennium CE amply demonstrate that there was a historic concept wat the Indian subcontinent as a sacred geography, where the sacredness was a shared set of religious ideas.
For example, the twelve Jyotirlingas of Shaivism and fifty-one Shaktipithas of Shaktism are described in the early medieval era Puranas as pilgrimage sites around a theme. Varanasi as a sacred pilgrimage site is documented in the Varanasimahatmya text embedded inside the Skanda Puranaand the oldest versions of this text are dated to 6th to 8th-century CE. The idea of twelve sacred sites in Shiva Hindu tradition spread across the Indian subcontinent appears not only in the medieval era temples but also in copper plate inscriptions and temple seals discovered in different sites.
According to Fleming, those who question whether the term Hindu and Hinduism are a modern construction in a religious context present their arguments based on some texts that have survived into the modern era, either of Islamic courts or of literature published by Western missionaries or colonial-era Indologists aiming for a reasonable construction of history. However, the existence of non-textual evidence such as cave temples separated by thousands of kilometers, as well as lists of medieval era pilgrimage sites, is evidence of a shared sacred geography and existence of a community that was self-aware of shared religious premises and landscape.
This, states Fleming, is apparent given the sophistication of the architecture and the sacred sites along with the variance in the versions of the Puranic literature. These sites became a target mran their serial attacks in the centuries that followed.
The Hindus have been persecuted during the medieval and modern era. The medieval persecution included engliish of plunder, killing, destruction of temples and enslavement by Turk-Mongol Muslim armies from central Asia.
This is documented in Islamic how to do a lab report for chemistry such as those relating to 8th century Muhammad bin-Qasim 11th century Mahmud of Ghazni  the Persian traveler Al Biruni,  the 14th century Islamic army invasion led by Timur,  and various Sunni Islamic rulers of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire.
Other recorded persecution of Hindus include those under the reign of 18th century Tipu Sultan in south India,  and during the colonial era. Christophe Jaffrelot states that modern Hindu nationalism was born in Maharashtrain the s, as a reaction to the Islamic Khilafat Movement wherein Indian Muslims championed and took the cause of the Meaan Ottoman sultan as the Caliph of all Muslims, at lamment end of the World War I. Chris Bayly traces the roots of Hindu nationalism to the Hindu identity and political independence achieved by the Maratha confederacythat overthrew the Islamic Mughal empire in large parts of India, allowing Hindus the freedom to pursue any of their diverse religious beliefs and restored Hindu holy places such as Varanasi.
The colonial era Hindu revivalism and mobilisation, along with Hindu nationalism, states Peter van der Veer, was primarily a reaction to and competition with Muslim separatism and Muslim nationalism.
The Hindu nationalism movement has sought to reform Indian laws, that critics say attempts to impose Hindu values on India's Islamic minority. Gerald Larson states, for example, that Hindu how to play pani da rang on guitar have sought a uniform civil code, where all citizens are subject to the same laws, everyone has equal civil doe, and individual rights do not depend on the individual's religion.
Muslim clerics consider this proposal as unacceptable because under the shariah-derived personal law, a Muslim girl can be married at any age after she reaches puberty. Hindu nationalism in India, states Katharine Adeney, what name is given to molten rock underground a controversial political subject, with no consensus about what it means or implies in terms of the form of government and religious rights of the minorities.
According to Pew Research, there are over 1. Most Hindus are found in Asian countries. The fertility rate, that is children per woman, for Hindus is 2. In more ancient times, Hindu kingdoms arose and spread the religion and traditions across Southeast Asia, particularly ThailandNepalBurmaMalaysiaIndonesiaCambodia Laos Philippines and what is now central Vietnam.
Over 3 million Hindus are found in Bali Indonesia, a culture whose origins trace back to ideas brought by Tamil Hindu traders to Indonesian islands in the 1st millennium CE. Their sacred texts are also the Vedas and the Upanishads.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the racehorse, see Hindus horse. For other uses, see Hindoo disambiguation and Hindu disambiguation. A Hindu wedding ritual in India. Neo-HinduismReform Hinduism and Hindu atheism. Sacred language: Sanskrit. Main traditions. Vaishnavism Shaivism Shaktism Smartism.
Rites of passage. Philosophical schools. Gurus, saints, philosophers. Other texts. Text classification. Other topics. Further information: Hinduism. Hindu culture in Bali, Indonesia. The distribution of Indian religions in British India The upper map shows distribution of Hindus, the lower of Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs.
Dofs celebrating their major festivals, Holi top and Diwali. Main article: Persecution of Hindus. Main articles: Hindu nationalism and Hindutva. Main article: Hinduism by country. Canada Mexico Panama United States. South America.
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Mar 17, †Ј EditorТs Note: Morning Tech is a free version of POLITICO Pro Technology's morning newsletter, which is delivered to our subscribers each morning at 6 a.m. The POLITICO . What does Mark chapter 12 mean? Jesus spends this entire chapter explaining that the Jewish religious and civil leaders are not nearly as wise or honorable as they claim to be. Their lack of understanding about what God values and intends for the world leads them to reject the truth they claim to teach. Typically electronic service requested is a service thats sold with certified mail. Instead of a paper return receipt, the image of the recipients signature, along with the date and time and GPS position of the delivery are captured electronically.
Romeo and Juliet Please see the bottom of the page for explanatory notes. A whispering tale in a fair lady's ear,. The Moral of Romeo and Juliet "The play has received its share of attention from Shakespeare's critics; and although it offers no such difficult problems of interpretation as do Hamlet or Macbeth , there has been a considerable difference among critics in regard to its moral purpose.
How there can be two opinions about this, it is difficult to see. The play was obviously not written to point a moral. It is a story of youthful love running counter to family feud, and ending in disaster. Something is made of the evil of feud, the horror of death, the strokes of blind fortune, but much more of the devotion and unselfishness of the two lovers, growing in beauty and significance for us under the stress of their great passion.
The idealization of their love gives the play its unity and impressiveness. To hunt for logic in the details of its structure or to seek for a sermon in its lyric passion is to refuse to yield to the sway of the whole spirit of the play. The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. Thoughts on Romeo and Juliet Shakespeare's Art , p.
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